Homo Bulla

飞去来器

之前去谷歌图片随机找油画当桌面,有张靠前的画看着眼熟;拿tineye反查一下:哟,这不正是多年前碰见的John Williams Waterhouse画的The Lady of Shalott嘛。当时借着同源歌词大概背下了这首丁尼生,也顺带着遛了一圈同人画作(雾)。

几个月后复习心理学,看到佛洛依德把力比多分为生命本能Eros和死亡本能Thanatos(垃圾课本还把后者拼错了);第一反应:哟,这不是被super sociology科普来的朋友赞纳托斯嘛。定睛一看tvtropes,发现是自己把Thanatos GambitXanatos Gambit搞混了...这就是不学希腊语、不认真记读音又不好好背全希罗神祇名字的后果。

Thanatos的维基页面往下一翻,John Williams Waterhouse竟然又蹦了出来;这回他画的是Sleep and his Half-brother Death. 再仔细瞧瞧他的List of paintings,只感觉这货怎么阴魂不散,如此喜爱黑暗(?)哥特(?)丧病(?)题材。(后来发现Waterhouse生平不妙,对不住了老兄我不该这么早就说你题材黑暗的。)

维基还写道:Thanatos's name is transliterated in Latin as Thanatus, but his equivalent in Roman mythology is Mors or Letum [citation needed]. 而手机上的惠特克词典说letus, leti= death. 

吓得我连忙去查差点混淆的形近字:

[Latin]          letus, leti= death

[Latin]          lectus, lecti= bed

[Latin]          litus, litoris= shore, beach

[Esperanto]  lito= bed

接下来是词源学民科无奖竞猜:

以上四个词是否有关,有何关系?

睡眠和死亡是否具有同一个词源?(言之成理即可,出题人只想看看大家怎么瞎编;欢迎提供正确答案——如果真有的话)




可能的答案(来自Wiktionary与Etymonline):

1.手机版惠特克词典骗了我,维基是对的;letum(而非letus)才是death.

2.四个词

letum (death)

    From Proto-Indo-European *ley- ‎(to flow) (cognate with lītus)

lectus (bed)

    From Proto-Indo-European *legʰ- ‎(to lie)

litus (shore)

    Probably from Proto-Indo-European *ley- ‎(to flow)

lito (bed) [Esperanto]

    Borrowing from French lit.

lit (bed) [French]

    From Latin lectus

 

所以世界语和法语的床确实来自拉丁语的床;河岸/海滩真的跟死亡同源,而且都指向“流动”对应的PIE。

3.letum本身词源尚未确定,除了与flow相关之外,还有另一种说法:

According to de Vaan, from Proto-Italic *leto-, which is perhaps a noun from a PIE past participle of a verb meaning "let, let go," on the notion of death as "a letting go." 

If so, related to Old Church Slavonic leto "summer, year" (from notion of "going"), Russian leto "summer," (pl.) "age, years;" Russian let' (archaic) "it is possible, allowed;" Old Norse lað, Old English læð "land," Gothic unleds "poor."

最重要的是,letum还是lethal和Lethe(忘川)的源头,这样我们又回到了流动这一意象。(因此我忍不住想支持流动假说而非放手假说= =)

4.至于睡眠与死亡是否同源,我跟着Wiktionary捋了一下,它们的来源去路似乎并无重合;倒是查到一篇文章,讲述西方文化史上睡眠和死亡怎么勾搭到一块儿的。


又过了两周:

卧槽。真有这么一个古希腊语单词,勾连起睡眠与死亡:

ὕπνος • ‎(húpnos) m ‎(genitive ὕπνου); second declension

1.sleep

2.death


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